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We, the undersigned, Kaimakam, Onakils [Ouakils], Mokatadgis, Dwan [Divan] and the principal people among the Christians, having gone, according to the orders of his Excellency the Mushir of Saida, to his Excellency the Kada and Kaimakam of his Excellency Onasfi [Ouasfi] Effendi, after having conferred with the Kaimakam, the Onakils, Mokatadgis, Dwan and principals of the Druzes, endeavouring both one and the other to root out the causes of disunion which have taken place, and to secure public tranquility for the future, conformably to the orders of his Excellency and for the love of the country.

We admit that since the commencement of these disturbances, the Government, the chiefs of the country, the reasonable men and those who love the country and tranquility, have never ceased to prevent their taking place. But whereas, from the machinations of those who love disorder, and principally persons who have no pity on newborn babes, young boys and girls, and from the obstinacy of unreasonable men, they were not able to prevent war from breaking out; admitting also that in such a state of things there is no other means of putting an end to the effusion of blood, and producing a general peace, than concluding a treaty between the belligerent parties, conformably to the condition of that which was made in the year 1261 of the Hegira [1845], which is "Oblivion of what has taken place."

It has consequently been agreed, with the help of God, to draw up this treaty of general peace on the above-mentioned conditions, and that for all that has happened from the commencement of the general war to the present time none of the parties has the right of making any claim either for the present or the future; that after the signature of this treaty whoever shall seek to break the peace shall be immediately punished by the authorities, and whoever shall endeavour to protect him shall be also punished. All the chiefs must in such a case unite to prevent the recurrence of such a fact.

1 Published in the London Times of July 30, 1860.

The orders of the authorities will be issued in conformity with the regulations of the mountain. The Kaimakam and the Mokatadgis must also conform their actions to the administrative regulations of the Lebanon, without any change, and must promptly execute all the orders of the authorities, and make the latter acquainted with the state of affairs whenever it may be necessary so to do. They must use all their efforts to promote union, friendship and concord between the two nations; to procure the tranquility and welfare of all its inhabitants, and particularly to endeavour to bring every individual back to his house, to live there in peace, and resume the possession of his property, without any one throwing any obstacle or molesting him in so doing. They shall in case of need, lend their co-operation to the people, in conformity with the regulations of the Government and with the aid of his Excellency the Muschir.

Prompt means shall be adopted as soon as possible to put an end to any cause of disunion, and restore relations of friendship and general tranquility, conformably to the will and the orders of the Sultan, whom God preserve, and to the intentions of his Excellency the Muschir. But, as it is admitted that the principal causes of disorder are to be found in the carelessness with which the orders and regulations of the administration are executed, the undersigned beseech his Excellency to take effectual measures for the administration of justice with impartiality to every one.

All the Mokatadgis and officials must perform the duties confided to them with zeal and attention, in conformity with the regulations of the mountain, without allowing any one to be treated with the slightest injustice duties which it is hoped they will fulfil with conscientious eagerness and impartiality.

Conformably with the above, peace is concluded between us on the condition above named, and it has been considered proper to draw up four copies of it, signed by each nation, two of which will be exchanged between the parties, and two will be presented to his Excellency the Muschir, to be kept in the archives of the Government, and serve as the rule of conduct for the present and the future.

[Here follow the signatures.]



To our Glorious Children, exalted and greatly honoured Sheiks, Gentlemen and Elders of our Nation, the Orthodox, in Rasheya of the Valley, May you remain for ever honoured. May there be bestowed upon you the blessings of Heaven, and I beseech the Creator of the universe that your lives may be preserved and that you may be successful. I desire to see you increase in all health and wealth. We declare unto you, my children, with respect to present events occurring among the Druzes, who are corruptors upon the earth and the authors of unjust deeds which are notorious and of unlawful acts which are according to their religion, that our Christian people, beloved in the Lord their God, have awakened, and so likewise have those who hold high power, and who are overshadowed by the providence of the Virgin, to overcome the Druzes, whom Satan has prompted to these evil deeds.

Now there has been a general meeting on the mountain of Lebanon of the chiefs of the people of Zahleh, Deir el-Kamar, Keserawan, Jezzin and the neighbouring places; and they will be as one hand against this nation [the Druzes], small in numbers and weak, in destroying them from out of the land which before was that of your forefathers, the orthodox nation.

Especially because there has come to us a letter from his Holiness, our lord, the exalted Patriarch, instructing us to aid the aforesaid people as they may determine; and for this purpose came the letter, that you may every one of you be prepared with all necessary arms, and that you should strengthen each other. Hereafter inform hereof your Christian children in your neighbourhood secretly, in order to overcome your enemies, the Druzes aforesaid.

It is determined here [at Ḥaşbayya, where the bishop resided] that on Monday next, if it please God, there shall be fighting under the venerated Princes, for it is not unknown to you that they strengthen our power and show zeal to all our people. Wherefore make your

1 Published in the London Times of September 17, 1860.

selves ready and through the blessing of our Sovereign Mother of God, the country will be cleared of your enemies in all directions, of whose enmity to your religion you need not be informed. May our blessing be for ever upon you.

This letter was sealed with the episcopal seal which bore in its centre the sentence: "From the humble Sophronius, Bishop of Tyre and Sidon," while by its side was written: "Glory to God for ever, from the humble among the high-priests, Sophronius, Bishop of Tyre and Sidon." At the foot of the letter was the signature: "The author and writer, the humble Sophronius, Bishop of Tyre and Sidon."



Praise be to God, who is free from unrighteousness and righteousness is one of his attributes! He made His creatures alike in creating them from the same substance. None can be acceptable before Him but through piety, which is founded upon the observation of the law. Let every one come forward with his works and compare them with the law. If they are in conformity with it, he will be happy, otherwise he will be a great loser. Blessing and peace be upon our Lord Muhammad, who has been sent a mercy to the world, and who spoke in the name of his Lord Most High, saying: "Ye creatures of God, injustice is unlawful for you, having deemed it always unlawful even for me; act not unjustly against each other." And now, ye men, fear God, and know that injustice makes those who commit it hateful and disliked in this life and leads them to torment in the life to come. Is not he who sheds the blood of a Moslem, a Zimmi or a refugee the most unjust man? Yea, is not he that violates a Moslem, Zimmi or refugee woman the most unjust man? Yea, is not he who destroys the house of a Moslem, Zimmi or refugee the most unjust man? The Zimmies and refugees are like unto us, we, Moslems, in all the rights, as it has been related that the lord of men [Muhammad]-may God bless and salute him-has said about the Zimmies: "They have what we have and what is against them is against us." How did the perpetrators of these acts [the massacres at Damascus and elsewhere] feel justified in committing them? How did they think it lawful for them to shed blood, insult women and rob property? Did they find that in a book revealed after the Qoran or did they rather gather it from the sayings of an apostle sent after the Lord of the sons of Adam? Say to them: "Bring forward your evidence if you are right. Why are you silent? Are you asleep or have you been deprived of your dreams?" Nay, the devil has possessed them and led them astray. Indeed, this evil work is no less than pulling down the founda

1 Published in the London Times of October 6, 1860, which does not give the influential Moslim's name.

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